Type effectiveness — how strong or weak a Pokemon is against a particular type — has been a core part of the games since the franchise was introduced, and Pokemon Sword and Shield is no different.
The winner of a battle can often be determined by whether you use type effectiveness in an effective manner. There are a few elements to be aware of, though.
Firstly, whether your Pokemon's attack is super effective is based on the opponent's type and your species' move type, not its actual type. For example, grass-types are weak against bug-type moves, but if you have a bug-type that is using a psychic-type move it won't be super effective.
Particular types of Pokemon are often susceptible and effective against various types. Fire-types are a good example of this whereby they are effective against bug, grass, ice, and steel-types but weak against ground, rock, and water.
Type chart table
A table listing each types strengths and weaknesses can be seen below:
|Type||Strong against||Weak against|
|Bug||Grass, Dark, Psychic||Fire, Flying, Rock|
|Dark||Ghost, Psychic||Bug, Fairy, Fighting|
|Dragon||Dragon||Dragon, Fairy, Ice|
|Fairy||Fighting, Dark, Dragon||Poison, Steel|
|Fighting||Dark, Ice, Normal, Rock, Steel||Fairy, Flying, Psychic|
|Fire||Bug, Grass, Ice, Steel||Ground, Rock, Water|
|Flying||Bug, Fighting, Grass||Electric, Ice, Rock|
|Ghost||Ghost, Psychic||Dark, Ghost|
|Grass||Ground, Rock, Water||Bug, Fire, Flying, Ice, Poison|
|Ground||Electric, Fire, Poison, Rock, Steel||Grass, Ice, Water|
|Ice||Dragon, Flying, Grass, Ground||Fighting, Fire, Rock, Steel|
|Poison||Fairy, Grass||Ground, Psychic|
|Psychic||Fighting, Poison||Bug, Dark, Ghost|
|Rock||Bug, Fire, Flying, Ice||Fighting, Grass, Ground, Steel, Water|
|Steel||Fairy, Ice, Rock||Fighting, Fire, Ground|
|Water||Fire, Ground, Rock||Electric, Grass|
There is actually more to type effectiveness than just looking at the above table, however. Super effective moves will deal double the damage whereas 'weak' moves will deal half. There are also a few moves that will deal no damage at all, such as normal-type attacks against ghost-types.
That's not all, though, as dual-types also play an important role. This complicates things a little more but once you get your head around it, it will make more sense.
Dual-type Pokemon, as the name suggests, have two types. If the move you are using is effective against both the opposing Pokemon's typing then there will be 4x the damage. Conversely, if the move is weak against both then it will be just 1/4 of the damage.
The best example of a super effective attack is water against rock and ground. Geodude is a dual rock and ground-type meaning any water attacks against it will be 4x as effective.
The opposite of this would occur when a fairy-type move is used against Heatran for example, a dual steel and fire-type, resulting in just 1/4 of the damage.
This can appear a lot to learn but once you know all of them you can really use it to your advantage in battles. It also looks Pokemon Sword and Shield will focus on competitive battling between players so learning them could be imperative.